Environmental Policy and Governance (2013) 23: 311–322. doi: 10.1002/eet.1623Klassert, C. and Möckel, S.
The European Union (EU) is still lagging behind its objective to halt the loss of biodiversity. Current research shows promising ways to improve the cost-effectiveness of existing policy mixes for habitat protection through the introduction of market-based instruments. To harness the potential of these ideas for the pursuit of the EU's biodiversity conservation objective during upcoming changes in the policy landscape and to identify the optimal allocation for each instrument, it is necessary to understand the scope for the introduction of market-based instruments across all relevant fields of EU policymaking. So far, there are, however, few systematic analyses satisfying this purpose. This article analyzes existing instruments under the Birds and the Habitats Directives and the Common Agricultural Policy, and the de lege and de facto constraints and opportunities that result from these policies for the introduction of additional market-based instruments. The analysis shows that the distribution of authority between the EU and its member states gives each of them different comparative advantages for the introduction of market-based instruments in the different policy fields. These provide various opportunities for the improvement of the existing policy mix for habitat protection. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment
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